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Nourish International

Examining Power, Privilege, and our Role in International Development by Nathan Albright

November 18, 2014 | Posted in 2014, Alumni Spotlight, Newsletters, Nourish in the News, Office Updates, Student Advisory Board, Summer Institute, Summer Projects | By

Sometimes to think critically, you need to listen to your biggest critics. It would be hard to find someone who was more critical of international volunteer projects than Ivan Illich. As we begin looking into potential project partners for next summer, maybe listening to someone like Illich will help us think more critically about some of the tough decisions involved.

In 1968, the philosopher and former Catholic Priest spoke to the “Conference on InterAmerican Student Projects” about its work in Mexico and Latin America. In this impassioned speech, he told the well intentioned ‘do-gooders’ that “the existence of organizations like yours is offensive” and “to hell with good intentions… the road to hell is paved with good intentions.” Here’s a little of what he went on to say:

By definition, you cannot help being ultimately vacationing salesmen for the middle-class “American Way of Life,” since that is really the only life you know.
Next to money and guns, the third largest North American export is the U.S. idealist…
Ideally, these people define their role as service. Actually, they frequently wind up alleviating the damage done by money and weapons, or “seducing” the “underdeveloped” to the benefits of the world of affluence and achievement.
All you will do in a Mexican village is create disorder.
You start on your task without any training. Even the Peace Corps spends around $10,000 on each corps member to help him adapt to his new environment and to guard him against culture shock. How odd that nobody ever thought about spending money to educate poor Mexicans in order to prevent them from the culture shock of meeting you?
Suppose you went to a U.S. ghetto this summer and tried to help the poor there “help themselves.” Very soon you would be either spit upon or laughed at. People offended by your pretentiousness would hit or spit. People who understand that your own bad consciences push you to this gesture would laugh condescendingly. Soon you would be made aware of your irrelevance among the poor, of your status as middle-class college students on a summer assignment. … If you insist on working with the poor, if this is your vocation, then at least work among the poor who can tell you to go to hell. It is incredibly unfair for you to impose yourselves on a village where you are so linguistically deaf and dumb that you don’t even understand what you are doing, or what people think of you. And it is profoundly damaging to yourselves when you define something that you want to do as “good,” a “sacrifice” and “help.”

That was nearly 50 years ago. Since then, the phenomenon of traveling to economically poor regions to volunteer—sometimes referred to as voluntourism—has seen a dramatic rise in popularity. But are the same issues Illich warned against still relevant today?

A more recent viewpoint comes from Linda Richter, executive director of the Human Sciences Research Council, who led a study looking into what she calls the “thriving industry of AIDS orphan tourism” in sub-Saharan Africa. What she found is disturbing. The majority of children in these orphanages are not orphans, she explains “[they] are there because of poverty rather than because their parents have died. Destitute parents may place their children in orphanages in the hope that their child will receive meals, clothing and schooling.” An influx of voluntourists who are willing to pay for the emotionally powerful experience of working in an orphanage has effectively created a market for orphans that local communities are now filling by giving up their own children. Richter explains:

Short-term volunteer tourists are encouraged to “make intimate connections” with previously neglected, abused, and abandoned young children. However, shortly after these ‘connections’ have been made, tourists leave—many undoubtedly feeling that they have made a positive contribution to the plight of very vulnerable children. And, in turn, feeling very special as a result of receiving a needy child’s affection. Unfortunately, many of the children they leave behind have experienced another abandonment to the detriment of their short- and long-term emotional and social development.

Rather than being raised by their living parents and family members, children are raised through an ever-changing stream of foreign volunteers that is “likely to be especially damaging to young children.” In light of this kind of study, it’s understandable that Illich and others have warned against voluntourism altogether. It’s disturbing to imagine the kind of damage that can be (and has been) done to a small community by a group of well-intentioned Westerners on a whirlwind trip to “make a difference” abroad. But how does something like that happen? And how can we avoid being part of a potentially detrimental project? Social critic and entrepreneur Pippa Biddle thinks it starts with acknowledging privilege.

When it comes to the power dynamics of voluntourism, it is all about privilege. Privilege comes in a multitude of forms and is sometimes hard to identify. There is racial privilege, then there is economic privilege, educational privilege, geographic privilege, gender privilege, religious privilege, privilege that comes with adhering to heteronormative standards, skinny privilege, and a million more that have yet to be recognized or that I just do not know.
Privilege is, at its core, easy to identify but difficult to own up to. Those who experience it, myself included, struggle to openly recognize its existence as we hope beyond hope that our kind intentions and good will are enough to overcome it. But they aren’t. Intentions are not enough.

Amy Ernst, a human rights advocate and international aid worker, agrees that good intentions won’t protect those you may work with and offers a concrete example from her experience:

The small team I worked with taught me the many ways I could make problems worse, even with the best of intentions… it’s not always easy to predict when your actions will cause harm. As a white American, my presence alone indicated wealth and could endanger people—even entire villages—as armed groups, or community members, in desperate need could have targeted people I spoke with, thinking I had left money or goods behind.

Rafia Zakaria, a columnist for Pakistan’s largest English-language newspaper, explains another pitfall of unchecked privilege in a foreign culture:

Typically other people’s problems seem simpler, uncomplicated and easier to solve than those of one’s own society. In this context, the decontextualized hunger and homelessness in Haiti, Cambodia or Vietnam is an easy moral choice. Unlike the problems of other societies, the failing inner city schools in Chicago or the haplessness of those living on the fringes in Detroit is connected to larger political narratives. In simple terms, the lack of knowledge of other cultures makes them [seem] easier to help.

The dangers of privilege and relying on good intentions are very real and are all the more reason to be cautious and well-informed while interacting with another culture. However most, like Zakaria, believe there is still a great value to the experience of working alongside a foreign community and that “despite its flaws, the educational aspect of voluntourism’s cross-cultural exchange must be saved, made better instead of being rejected completely.” Zakaria believes we can do this by focusing on “the recipient community’s actual needs” as opposed to “the volunteer’s quest for experience.” Plenty of others offer their own advice and experiences to consider while you sift through international projects:

Richter suggests that rather than volunteering in an orphanage:

Every available resource should be utilised to support families and extended kin to enable them to provide high quality care for their children. Out-of-home residential care should not be an option when support can be given to families to take care of their own children.

Biddle believes we should first look at what we have to offer a community:

Wanting to create change does not necessarily mean that you have the skills or access to the resources needed to make that happen… [Students] should be helped, with input from the community, in finding what skills she can offer, whether that be fund-raising for new textbooks or helping with the harvest.

Young volunteers offer unique sets of skills and experiences that most current placement organizations don’t do enough to take advantage of. By sending volunteers to do complicated tasks, we set them up for failure and increase the likelihood that their trips become poverty tourism rather than productive service work.

Ernst reminds us that even if we think we have a pretty firm grasp on the project situation:

Accountability and humility are key. You may not have a training booklet telling you what’s right or wrong, but local experts exist everywhere. And if you look hard enough, you will find that all skills are needed; you just need to figure out where and how to apply them in the appropriate context.

Ossob Mohamud, a contributor for an African subsidiary of The Guardian, suggests addressing the “root institutional and structural causes of the problem”:

Time and energy would be better spent building real solidarity between disparate societies based on mutual respect and understanding. Instead of focusing on surface symptoms of poverty, volunteers and the organisations that recruit them should focus on the causes that often stem from an unjust global economic order. Why not advocate and campaign for IMF and World Bank reforms? How about having volunteers advocate for their home country to change aggressive foreign and agricultural policies (such as subsidy programmes)? This might seem unrealistic but the idea is to get volunteers to understand their own (direct or indirect) role in global poverty. The idea is to get volunteers truly invested in ending poverty, and not simply to feel better about themselves.

Among the countless voices offering opinions on navigating the world of international volunteering, there isn’t one that reveals a clear path to picking a partner or a guaranteed method for a successful project. From the partner selection process to your first day on site, to posting pictures online and talking to friends when you get home, there’s a lot to be considered. A few basic themes seem to repeat:

Be educated. Learn whatever you can about the region and the culture of the people you’re planning to work with. Be aware of the historical events that led to their complicated situation and to your own.

Be humble. Part of learning is knowing how much you still don’t know. Remember that you’re coming from a position of immense privilege- simply by being enrolled in a college and travelling by plane to a project you are part of a relatively small global class. Be aware of the power dynamic this creates as well as the danger that power brings with it.

Be practical. Good intentions are not enough to guarantee success. Find out what the community needs (as opposed to what you want to do), and ask yourselves what you can realistically contribute. Attack root causes, rather than surface problems. Will people be better off when you leave? Pick a project or partner that has proven results.

At the end of the day, try to be thankful for the incredible gift of being invited into another culture and remember how much there is to learn from a culture so incredibly different than our own. Even Ivan Illich has some advice for those who are willing to go abroad humbly:

[Traveling on these projects] could lead you to new awareness: the awareness that even North Americans can receive the gift of hospitality without the slightest ability to pay for it; the awareness that for some gifts one cannot even say “thank you.”

Nathan Albright is the Community Discourse Coordinator at Nourish International.

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Annotations:

Ivan Illich speech to the Conference on InterAmerican Student Projects

http://blogs.cornell.edu/ccecrosscultural/2011/11/09/ivan-illich-to-hell-with-good-intentions/

HSRC- AIDS Orphan Tourism

http://www.hsrc.ac.za/en/review/August-2010/aids-orphan-tourism

New York Times- Voluntourism Debate http://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2014/04/29/can-voluntourism-make-a-difference/poverty-as-a-tourist-attraction

Pippa Biddle- White Girls Aren’t The Problem…
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/pippa-biddle/little-white-girls-arent-_b_6062638.html

Rafia Zakaria- The White Tourist’s Burden
http://america.aljazeera.com/opinions/2014/4/volunter-tourismwhitevoluntouristsafricaaidsorphans.html

Ossob Mohamud
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/feb/13/beware-voluntourists-doing-good

Guest Post by Jared Staley, Student Board Member

March 11, 2014 | Posted in Nourish Office, Student Advisory Board, Student Spotlight | By

Guest Post by Jared Staley, OSU Chapter Member, Co-Chair of Student Advisory Board and Student Board Member

Jared Staley PicIn the fall of 2011, I began my time with Nourish International at The Ohio State University. Little did I know, this organization would light a fire inside of me and lead me down an incredible path. Nourish excited me because of its close community of leaders and the ability to really see how one individual can have a strong and lasting impact. Nourish International has helped me, as it has many other students, grow into a caring and compassionate leader. I began my time with Nourish as a general body member, and later took on the Marketing, Co-Leader, and Outreach positions within my Chapter. Today, I work with Nourish on a movement scale as Co-Chair of the Student Advisory Board and Student Board Member with the Board of Directors. The opportunities that Nourish provides students to develop as a true leader are endless.

Nourish International abled me to develop my leadership abilities unlike any other organization. From day one, I was made to feel like someone who had something to offer to the group. I was made to feel important. As I began to take on more leadership, I had my predecessors to look to. The leaders that came before me were honest, caring, supportive, and above all passionate. Nourish has taught me that to be a leader is to be a motivator. You are not required to have all the right answers nor all of the questions. To be a successful leader you have to be open to your peers. Nourish has taught me that leadership isn’t a place of power but a place of belief, love, and drive. As a leader, you need to have belief in your abilities, your peers’ abilities, and a collective mission. A Nourish Leader values the success of a collective, rather than the success of the singular.

Every member in Nourish International is a leader. We are a community of leaders that is constantly holding each other to higher standards, asking each other to be and do better. A Nourish Leader is a person who is able to see the abilities in others. They are able to take someone higher and bring out the leader in everyone. It’s that kind of community that makes the greatest of leaders.

– Jared Staley

Welcome New Nourish International Board Members!

June 17, 2013 | Posted in 2013, Nourish in the News, Nourish Office, Office Updates, Student Advisory Board | By

We want to welcome our new additions to the 2013 Board of Directors! Our new members have been engaged and supportive of the movement for many years and begin serving on the board this July.

Gary Hayes – Managing Director & Co-Founder of Scale Finance

Gary Hayes, CPA, is the Managing Director and Co-Founder of Scale Finance LLC; a Raleigh-based financial manageme
Garybunt services firm. He received his MBA from the University of Maryland and has been involved in the financial sector through manybusinesses and nonprofit organizations. During his time as Chief Financial Officer with Koz.com, Hayes assisted the CEO in raising $35 million in venture capital. Hayes also acted as Chief Financial Officer for Ateb Inc and served as the appointed Treasurer for Ibiliti. He has been involved in the community as a guest lecturer for the undergraduate business school at UNC and NC State. Hayes is an active member of the Nourish International Finance Committee and has been elected as Board Treasurer.

Brandon Agranovich, Miami University

Brandon Agranovich is a sophomore at Miami University and member of the Farmer School of Business Honors Program. He is

Brandon

pursuing a B.S. in Marketing with a minor in Spanish and Entrepreneurship.  In his Miami Chapter,

Brandon served as the Chapter Representative and member of the ventures committee, while also serving as the Regional Representative for his region. He hopes to bring his experience in running his own businesses for over 10 years, as well as his experience in social entrepreneurship, to help Nourish’s mission reach more people. In his spare time, Brandon enjoys golf, traveling and volunteering.

Jared Staley, Ohio State University

Jared Staley is a junior at The Ohio State University, where he is pursuing his B.S. in Architecture and a minor in Design. He has served as Marketing Director and Co-Leader for his chapter, and will be taking on the new Outreach position. In addition to Nourish, Jared is involved in SERVitecture, a service oriented organization that partners with Habitat for Humanity; Knowlton School of Architecture Student Council, University Honors & Scholars Ambassadors, a volunteer organization that works closely with incoming Honors & Scholars freshmen; and Kuhn Honors and Scholars House, promoting Honors and Scholars events and initiatives as a Student Staff Assistant. Jared’s passion for Nourish International, globalization, and alleviating poverty has propelled him to pursue future work in sustainable architecture and affordable housing. When he has free time, Jared enjoys reading, listening to new music, photography, working out, and discovering his newfound pleasure in yoga.Jared

 

Looking Back, Moving Forward

January 24, 2013 | Posted in Student Advisory Board | By

As I think over the past six months that I’ve spent working intimately with Nicole and the others who have helped to nurture and support the development of the Student Advisory Board (SAB), I am left in humble amazement, feeling a deep sense of gratitude for the progress that we’ve made thus far and am excited for what is still yet to come. One of our most important tasks beginning the year was to recruit and secure new SAB Chapter Reps from all of our Chapters across the country. And then, to select a project that was worthy of the time and passion of our newly appointed board. With unanimous support, the new Student Advisory Board approved two new projects: planning for our first National Nourish Day and conducting Chapter discussions on long-term community partnerships.

The SAB launched into the discussion about long-term community partnerships during mid-October, utilizing its new Chapter Reps as facilitators for conducting thought-provoking discussions with their respective Chapters, engaging them in a conversation about the pros and cons of having long-term community partnerships. Through this process, the board learned that many Nourish members have quite a reasonable understanding of international development. The feedback revealed that Nourish members generally support the idea of having long-term community partnerships, believing that they will enhance the sustainability of the work in which Nourish engages. However, despite general support, some concerns were expressed by the Chapters. Two of their most prominent concerns were that this idea might foster dependency, and that it might limit the Chapter’s power of choice. Because the Chapters were not given a specific model of long-term partnerships to consider, there were many variations on what this might look like, which allowed the students to develop a comprehensive set of “worst case scenarios”. At this point in time, the  SAB’s report on these Chapter discussions will greatly inform any changes that they may happen to make to better the International Projects process for the upcoming school year.

The SAB now has the opportunity to plan for our first-ever National Nourish Day (NND)! There is a lot of excitement across all the Chapters for this, and we are truly looking forward to diving into this initiative. In mid-December, we had a round of conference calls with all the Chapter Reps, during which time we brainstormed an assortment of ideas for NND. Nicole and I are sifting through the ideas now, trying to determine which are most feasible for implementing across the entire Network, and of course, which ones seem to be the most fun, creative and engaging. For now, I’m going to keep a tight lid on which ideas are rising to the top and will leave it up to your Chapter Reps to fill you in when the time is right. So keep your ears up and your eyes open – the details will be flying at you soon enough!

John McCreary
SAB Co-Chair / Student Board Member

July/August: The Transition

September 11, 2012 | Posted in Student Advisory Board | By

My road to becoming a Student Advisory Board (SAB) Co-Chair/Student Board Member started in an unlikely place—and that place was Rome, Italy.

I vividly remember the sense of panic I felt when I got an email from the National Office gently asking and reminding me that applications for the position were due soon and encouraging me to submit one.  I had fully intended to apply, yet there I was, 2 weeks and hundreds of miles away from my laptop and all my files.  I was impressed that I could even get Wi-Fi on my phone in our ‘modest’ hostel.  At that moment of panic, I could never imagine how rewarding, humbling, and deeply exhilarating the next few months of interviews, training, and then transition to being a Student Board Member would be.

As I’m quickly approaching my first board meeting, I still have trepidations and uncertainties.  However, I am now more sure than ever that I made a very good decision to apply for this position and the opportunity to work with every integral part of the Nourish movement.  I am continually blown away by the caliber of excellence in all of the individuals I am working with.

My work started in July as I got to know my Co-Chair, John McCreary.  Neither of us knew exactly what to expect, nor did we have a firm grasp on the details of the journey we were embarking on together.  Those first orientation calls with Allie at the National Office and last year’s wonderful Co-Chairs, Claire Kane and Kyle Forrester, helped us shape our enthusiasm into understanding.  Side phone calls with just John allowed he and I to establish trust and a friendship on which to base our increasing interactions.

By the time the Summer Institute arrived in August, John and I had already logged several hours and spent several nights of work developing our vision for this year’s Student Advisory Board.  So despite having never met him, I already felt like John and I had known each other for years.  The openness and optimism that we shared with each other as well as the encouragement and support that Kyle Forrester provided leading up to and all throughout the Summer Institute allowed us all to work together exceptionally well.  By the end of the Institute we put the final touches on Kyle and Claire’s work from the year before and unveiled Nourish’s new Mission, Vision, and Values—all while building stronger support for this year’s yet to be determined SAB project.

Since the Summer Institute, John and I have continued to grow the base of the SAB.  Our last couple weeks have been filled with emails and phone calls and Facebook messages as we work to recruit this year’s group of chapter and regional representatives.  The more emails I send, and the more interaction I have with other chapters, the more excited I get about the potential of the SAB and the Nourish movement.  It’s still very early in the year (in fact, many of our West Coast chapters still haven’t returned to classes), but I am filled with hope and expectations for a successful year ahead.

-Nicole Devereaux